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The MPIDB, formerly the Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch, was formed in 1988 with the mission to support and conduct domestic and international research related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, transmission, treatment, and prevention of HIV infection and its complications in infants, children, adolescents, and women (pregnant and non-pregnant). As the HIV epidemic has evolved in the United States and globally, the MPIDB has ensured that research funded by the Branch reflects these changes and addresses important research opportunities and gaps as they arise. The research gaps in children and pregnant women related to many HIV-associated co-infections, such as tuberculosis, hepatitis, and malaria, have become evident as HIV research has become increasingly global in nature. The MPIDB has responded accordingly by promoting and funding new research related to these infectious pathogens in HIV-infected and -uninfected populations. In addition to HIV and associated infectious diseases, the MPIDB supports and conducts research into the epidemiology, natural history, pathogenesis, transmission, treatment, and prevention of other important infectious diseases, including congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis; tropical diseases specifically affecting children and pregnant women; and vaccine-preventable disease in infants, children, adolescents, and women.
- Develops and supports domestic and international research and research training programs
- Develops and supports clinical trials of specific and adjunctive treatment and preventive therapies for HIV and other priority infectious diseases in infants, children, adolescents, and women (including safety and pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in these populations), either independently or in collaboration with other Institutes and agencies
- Investigates the effect of HIV and other infectious agents and their therapies on pregnant women, pregnancy outcomes, fetuses, and children, and the impact of pregnancy on the course of HIV disease and other infectious diseases
- Elucidates the impact of therapies used during pregnancy or breastfeeding to treat or prevent infectious diseases on the long-term outcome of exposed infants, children, and adolescents
- Investigates the gender-specific manifestations of HIV and other infectious diseases and therapies to treat such manifestations
- Collaborates with other Institutes and agencies to conduct implementation science research that evaluates optimal ways to implement evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions, and assess their effectiveness
- Develops, supports, and evaluates vaccines, other biomedical modalities, and the full scope of activities for the prevention of HIV infection, HIV-associated infections, and other high-priority infectious diseases in the populations of interest
The Branch collaborates with other NICHD Branches, NIH Institutes, federal agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and interested private organizations that share a focus on maternal, pediatric, and adolescent HIV infection and related infectious diseases. The Branch's activities target the following goals:
- Eliminating new pediatric HIV infections in the United States and globally
- Evaluating new strategies for HIV cure/remission in infants, children, and adolescents
- Preventing new HIV infections among adolescents, and pregnant and breastfeeding women
- Optimizing the health of HIV-infected children, adolescents, and women so that they can lead meaningful and productive lives free of the complications of HIV and its treatment
- Reducing morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases specifically affecting infants, children, adolescents, and women
- Funding Opportunity Announcements:
- Branch-funded research findings:
- NICHD news release: NIH research network finds many youth have high levels of HIV
- Article: Ellen JM, Kapogiannis B, Fortenberry JD, Xu J, Willard N, DuVal A, Pace J, Loeb J, Monte D, Bethel J, and the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network. HIV Viral Load Levels and CD4 Cell Counts of Youth at Entry to HIV Care in Fourteen U.S. Cities. AIDS, 2014 May 15;28(8):1213-9.
- NICHD news release: Youth born with HIV may have higher heart disease risk, NIH network study shows
- Article: Patel K, Wang J, Jacobson DL, Lipshultz SE, Landy DC, Geffner ME, DiMeglio LA, Seage GR III, Williams PL, Van Dyke RB, Siberry GK, Shearer WT, Young L, Scott GB, Wilkinson JD, Fisher SD, Starc TJ, and Miller TL for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Aggregate risk of cardiovascular disease among adolescents perinatally infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Circulation 2013; 129(11):1204-12.
- NICHD news release: Year-round preventive treatment reduces malaria risk in young children
- Article: Bigira V, Kapisi J, Clark TD, Kinara S, Mwangwa F, Muhindo MK, et al. Protective efficacy and safety of three antimalarial regimens for the prevention of malaria in young Ugandan children: a randomized controlled trial. PLosMed 2014;11 (8):e1001689.
- NICHD news release: Anti-HIV drugs may protect against puberty delays in HIV-infected children
- Article: Williams PL, Abzug MJ, Jacobson DL, Wang J, Van Dyke RB, Hazra R, Patel K, DiMeglio LA, McFarland EJ, Silio M, Borkowsky W, Seage GR III, Oleske JM, & Geffner ME, for the International Maternal Pediatric and Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P219/219C Study and the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Pubertal onset in perinatally HIV-infected children in the era of combination antiretroviral treatment. AIDS 2013; 27(12):1959-70.
- Adolescent HIV prevention research:
- Special supplement: Kapogiannis BG, Kasedde SM, Bakeera-Kitaka S, Lee S, Rees H. (2014). Ending HIV and AIDS in Adolescents: Programmatic and Implementation Science Priorities. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 66 Suppl 2, S139-235. http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2014/07011/Executive_Summary___Opportunities_for_Action_and.1.aspx
- Special supplement: Kapogiannis BG, Ruiz MS, Handelsman E, Lee S. (2010). Inclusion of Adolescents and Young Adults in Biomedical HIV Prevention Research. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 54 Suppl 1, S1-S52. http://journals.lww.com/jaids/toc/2010/07011
- Special supplement: Mofenson LM, Cotton MF. (2013). Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16:18650. http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/pages/view/thematicadolescents
- Pace J. E., Siberry, G. K., Hazra, R., & Kapogiannis, B. G. (2013). Preexposure prophylaxis for adolescents and young adults at risk for HIV infection: is an ounce of prevention worth a pound of cure? Clinical Infectious Diseases, 56(8), 1149-1155. PMID: 23223604
- Lally M, Goldsworthy R, Sarr M, Kahn JA, Brown LK, Peralta L, Zimet GD, and the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network. (2014). Evaluation of an intervention among adolescents to reduce preventive misconception in HIV vaccine clinical trials. J Adolesc Health, 55(2):254-9. PMID 24613097
- Kasedde S, Kapogiannis BG, McClure C, et al. (2014). Executive Summary: Opportunities for action and impact to address HIV and AIDS in adolescents. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 66 Suppl 2, S139-143.
- Rudy B. J., Kapogiannis, B. G., Lally, M. A., Gray, G. E., Bekker, L. G., Krogstad, P., & McGowan, I. (2010). Youth-specific considerations in the development of preexposure prophylaxis, microbicide, and vaccine research trials. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 54 Suppl 1, S31-42. PMID: 20571421
- Selected research from MPID-supported studies:
- Special supplement: Hazra R, Siberry GK. (2014) Infections Transmitted from Mother to Child During Pregnancy, Delivery and Breastfeeding. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society, 3 Suppl 1:S1- S40. http://jpids.oxfordjournals.org/content/3/suppl_1.toc
- Special supplement: Richter LM, Mofenson LM. (2014). Children Born into Families Affected by HIV. AIDS, 28 Suppl 3:S241-S409. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/toc/2014/07001
- Persaud D, Gay H, Ziemniak C, Chen YH, Piatak M Jr, Chun TW, et al. (2014). Absence of detectable HIV-1 viremia after treatment cessation in an infant. New England Journal of Medicine, 369 (19):1828-35. PMID 24152233. (RO1 HD0577849)
- Kuhn L, Hunt G, Technau KG, Coovadia A, Ledwadba J, Pickerill S, et al. (2014) Drug resistance among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in the era of more efficacious antiretroviral prophylaxis. AIDS, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 24785949 (R01 HD-061255).
- Dooley KE, Denti P, Martinson N, Cohn S, Mashabela F, Hoffman J, et al. (2014). Pharmacokinetics of efavirenz and treatment of HIV-1 among pregnant women with and without tuberculosis co-infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 25081933. (R01 HD064354)
- Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study: Alperen J, Brummel S, Tassiopoulos K, Mellins CA, Kacanek D, Smith R, Seage GR III, & Moscicki AB for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Substance Use Among Perinatally HIV-Infected and Perinatally-Exposed but Uninfected Youth. Journal of Adolescent Health 2014; 54(3):341-49.
- Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study: Malee KM, Mellins CA, Huo Y, Tassiopoulos K, Smith R, Sirois PA, Allison SM, Kacanek D, Kapetanovic S, Williams PL, Grant ML, Marullo D, Aidala AA for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). Prevalence, Incidence and Persistence of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders Among Mothers Living with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndro 2013; 65(5):526-34.
- International Maternal Pediatric Adolescents AIDS Clinical Trials Network/NICHD International and Domestic Maternal and Pediatric HIV Trials Network: Nachman S, Zheng N, Acosta EP, Teppler H, Homony B, Graham B, et al. (2014). Pharmacokinetics, safety and 48-week efficacy of oral raltegravir in HIV-1-infected children aged 2 through 18 years. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58 (3):413-22.
- International Maternal Pediatric Adolescents AIDS Clinical Trials Network/NICHD International and Domestic Maternal and Pediatric HIV Trials Network:: Clarke DF, Acosta EP, Rizk ML, Bryson YJ, Spector SA, Mofenson LM, et al. (2014). Raltegravir pharmacokinetics in neonates following maternal dosing. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 25162819
- Adolescent Trials Network: Havens PL, Hazra R, Stephensen CB, Kiser JJ, Flynn PM, Wilson CM, Rutledge B, Bethel J, Pan CG, Woodhouse LR, Van Loan MD, Liu N, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Baker A, Kapogiannis BG, Gordon CM, Mulligan K, and the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network. Vitamin D3 Supplementation Increases FGF23 in HIV-Infected Youth treated with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Antiviral Therapy, Epub ahead of print. PMID 24535626 International Epidemiologic Databases for Evaluation of AIDS: Davies MA, May M, Bolton-Moore C, Chimbetete C, Eley B, Garone D, et al. (2014). Prognosis of children with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa: a collaborative analysis of treatment programs. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 33 (6):608-16. PMID 24378936
- Women’s Interagency HIV Study: Herold, B. C., Keller, M. J., Shi, Q., Hoover, D. R., Carpenter, C. A., Huber, A., et al. (2013). Plasma and mucosal HIV viral loads are associated with genital tract inflammation in HIV-infected women. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes,63(4), 485-493. PMID: 23591635
- Microbicide Trials Network: Beigi, R., Noguchi, L., Parsons, T., Macio, I., Kunjara Na Ayudhya, R. P., Chen, J., et al. (2011). Pharmacokinetics and placental transfer of single-dose tenofovir 1% vaginal gel in term pregnancy. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204(10), 1527-1531. PMID: 21930612
- Current HIV Treatment Guidelines for children, adolescents, women and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in the United States: Federally approved guidelines and information about the current treatment regimens and prevention strategies for HIV infection and HIV-related illnesses for adults, adolescents, children, and infants and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission
- Current HIV Treatment Guidelines for children, adolescents, women and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-limited countries: World Health Organization guidelines and new information about current recommendations on the diagnosis of HIV infection, the care of people living with HIV and use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV in adults, adolescents, children , infants, pregnant women and prevention of mother-to-child transmission.