How does reading work?

Reading is a complex, multipart process.1,2,3,4,5  View a slideshow that explains the process.


  1. Berninger, V. W., Abbott, R. D., Vermeulen, K., & Fulton, C.M. (2006). Paths to reading comprehension in at-risk second-grade readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(4), 334–351. doi:10.1177/00222194060390040701
  2. Foorman, B. R., Breier, J. I., & Fletcher, J. M. (2003). Interventions aimed at improving reading success: An evidence-based approach. Developmental Neuropsychology, 24(2-3), 613–639. doi:10.1080/87565641.2003.9651913
  3. Richards, T. L., & Berninger, V. W. (2008). Abnormal fMRI connectivity in children with dyslexia during a phoneme task: Before but not after treatment. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21(4), 294–304. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroling.2007.07.002
  4. Lyon, G. R., & Moats, L. C. (1997). Critical conceptual and methodological considerations in reading intervention research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(6), 578–588. doi:10.1177/002221949703000601
  5. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2019). National reading panel publications. Retrieved September 16, 2019, from


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