Other Pregnancy FAQs

Basic information for topics, such as "What is it?" and "How many people are affected?" is available in the About Pregnancy section. Answers to other Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) specific to pregnancy are in this section.


  1. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2015). Pregnancy weight gain calculator. Retrieved June 1, 2016, from https://www.myplate.gov/node/5390
  2. Institute of Medicine. (2009). Weight gain during pregnancy: Reexamining the guidelines. Retrieved July 31, 2012, from https://www.nap.edu/resource/12584/Report-Brief---Weight-Gain-During-Pregnancy.pdf external link (PDF 47 KB)
  3. American College of Obstetrician and Gynecologists. (2013). Committee Opinion No. 548. Weight gain during pregnancy. Retrieved December 30, 2020, from https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2013/01/weight-gain-during-pregnancy external link
  4. NIH. (2010). Risk of newborn heart defects increases with maternal obesity [news release]. Retrieved July 30, 2012, from http://www.nih.gov/news/health/apr2010/nichd-07.htm
  5. Wojcicki, J. M., & Heyman, M. B. (2010). Let's Move—Childhood obesity prevention from pregnancy and infancy onward. New England Journal of Medicine, 362, 1457–1459. PMID: 20393165
  6. Horta, B. L. & Victora, C. G. (2013). Long-term effects of breastfeeding: A systematic review. World Health Organization. Retrieved June 1, 2016, from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/79198/1/9789241505307_eng.pdf external link (PDF 1.2 MB)
  7. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2014). What I need to know about gestational diabetes. Retrieved June 1, 2016, from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes/gestational
  8. Behl, M., Rao, D., Aagaard, K., Davidson, T. L., Levin, E. D., Slotkin, T. A., et al. (2013). Evaluation of the association between maternal smoking, childhood obesity, and metabolic disorders: A National Toxicology Program workshop review. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, 170–180. PMID: 23232494
  9. O'Sullivan, A., Farver, M., & Smilowitz, J. T. (2015). The influence of early infant-feeding practices on the intestinal microbiome and body composition in infants. Nutrition and Metabolic Insights, 8(Suppl 1), 1–9. PMCID: PMC4686345
  10. Taveras, E. M., Gillman, M. W., Peña, M.-M., Redline, S., & Rifas-Shiman, S. L. (2014). Chronic sleep curtailment and adiposity. Pediatrics, 133, 1013–1022. PMCID: PMC4035591
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2018). Treating for Two: Medicine and Pregnancy. Retrieved May 16, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds/treatingfortwo/index.html
  12. CDC. (2016). Medications and pregnancy: Effects of medications during pregnancy. Retrieved June 3, 2016, from https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds
  13. Bloor, M., & Paech, M. (2013). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the initiation of lactation. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 116, 1063–1075. PMID: 23558845
  14. Thierry, J. M. (2006). The importance of preconception care for women with disabilities. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 10, S175–S176. PMCID: PMC1592145
  15. Center for Research on Women with Disabilities. (2012). Sexuality and reproductive health—Pregnancy and delivery. Retrieved June 3, 2016, from https://www.bcm.edu/research/centers/research-on-women-with-disabilities/topics/reproductive-health/pregnancy-delivery external link
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