What can parents do to promote their infant’s health before the child is born?

What is pre-pregnancy care?

Pre-pregnancy care is the care a woman gets before she becomes pregnant.

Women can help to promote a healthy pregnancy and the birth of a healthy infant by taking the following steps before they become pregnant1:

  • Develop a plan for their reproductive life.
  • Increase their daily intake of folic acid (one of the B vitamins) to at least 400 micrograms.
  • Make sure their immunizations are up to date.
  • Control their diabetes and other medical conditions.
  • Avoid smoking, drinking, and drug use.
  • Strive to get to a healthy weight.
  • Learn about their family health history and that of their partner.
  • Avoid stress by getting mentally healthy.

It is also important that women contact their healthcare provider as soon as they think they might be pregnant. That way, they can confirm their pregnancy and schedule their first prenatal exam.

What is prenatal care?

Women can increase their chances for a healthy pregnancy by getting regular prenatal care starting early in their pregnancy, eating right, exercising, and not smoking.

Prenatal care is the care a woman gets during pregnancy. Early and regular prenatal visits to a healthcare provider are important for the health of both the mother and her developing fetus. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, women who do not seek prenatal care are three times as likely to deliver a low-birth-weight infant as those who do. Lack of prenatal care can also increase the risk of infant death.2

Both the length of prenatal visits and what happens during these visits vary depending on the week of pregnancy. Generally, at each visit, women provide a urine sample, and a nurse checks their weight and blood pressure. They also meet with their healthcare provider to discuss how their pregnancy is progressing.

Prenatal Nutrition

Pregnant women need more folic acid (a B vitamin) and certain other nutrients in their diet to help ensure that their infant is born healthy. Research shows that taking supplements of folic acid during pregnancy can prevent a type of congenital anomaly called neural tube defects. Usually, a pregnant woman's healthcare provider will advise her to take a prenatal vitamin supplement.

The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that pregnant women who were of normal weight before pregnancy increase their food intake by about 300 calories per day.3 The total amount of weight a woman should gain during pregnancy depends on her pre-pregnancy weight. Women whose weight was in the healthy range before becoming pregnant should gain between 25 and 35 pounds while pregnant. The advice is different for those who were overweight or underweight before becoming pregnant.4

The U.S. Department of Agriculture offers an online tool (https://www.myplate.gov/life-stages/pregnancy-and-breastfeeding) that can help women who are pregnant or breastfeeding plan their meals to ensure that their nutrition is optimal as judged by intake of specific food groups and stage of pregnancy.

More information about weight gain during pregnancy is available in the "How much weight should I gain during pregnancy?" section.

Exercise During Pregnancy

For most women, ACOG recommends exercising 30 minutes or more each day during pregnancy. Exercise can help improve many unpleasant symptoms experienced by some women (such as bloating, swelling, and backaches). It may also improve women's ability to cope with labor.5

Exercise is an important way to prevent or treat gestational diabetes, a condition that poses risks to the developing fetus.6

Some forms of activity should be avoided during pregnancy because they pose a high risk that the woman will fall and injure herself, her fetus, or both. It's also important to avoid getting dehydrated or overheated. The ACOG offers some specific recommendations for activities that are safe during pregnancy external link.6

Preparing for Baby's Arrival

Infants depend on their caregivers to meet all their needs. Learning about your infant's care and health is an important first step in making sure that he or she has the best health outcomes. Because you and other members of the family are the main caregivers for your child, it is important for all of you to know about what's involved in caring for your infant and ensuring that the child receives regular healthcare.

Infants need frequent checkups and vaccinations, and they sometimes get sick.

Before the infant is born, it is a good idea to choose a healthcare provider—a pediatrician, family physician, or pediatric nurse practitioner—who specializes in the care of infants and children. A directory of pediatricians external link is available through the American Academy of Pediatrics.


  1. March of Dimes. (2011). Getting ready for pregnancy. Retrieved May 17, 2012, from https://www.marchofdimes.org/pregnancy/getting-ready-for-pregnancy-preconception-health.aspx external link
  2. Office on Women's Health. (2009). Publications: Prenatal care fact sheet. Retrieved April 12, 2012, from https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/prenatal-care
  3. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2021). Nutrition during pregnancy. Retrieved August 27, 2021, from https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/nutrition-during-pregnancy external link
  4. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Health & nutrition information for pregnant & breastfeeding women. Retrieved August 1, 2012, from https://www.myplate.gov/node/5390
  5. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Exercise during pregnancy. Retrieved August 27, 2021, from https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/exercise-during-pregnancy external link
  6. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved August 27, 2021, from https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/gestational-diabetes external link
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