Physically, someone with Cushing syndrome might:
- Be heavy or obese above the waist but have thin arms and legs
- Have a round, red face, sometimes referred to as a moon face
- Have a fat lump between the shoulders, sometimes called a buffalo hump
- Have weak muscles or bones including osteoporosis, bone pain, and fractures
- Have skin changes, including:
- New or worsened acne or skin infections
- Reddish-purple stretch marks called striae (pronounced STRY-ee). These are usually about half an inch wide and can appear on the abdomen, buttocks, thighs, arms, and breasts.
- Thin, fragile skin that bruises easily and heals poorly
Additional symptoms can include the following:
- Children may get heavier but grow more slowly than their peers.
- Women may have more hair on their face, neck, chest, abdomen, and thighs. They may experience menstrual problems, such as irregular or stopped periods.
- Men may have lower sex drive, experience impotence, and become less fertile.
The following less common symptoms also may develop:
- Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, moodiness, or behaving differently
- Severe fatigue
- Thirst and increased need to urinate
- High blood pressure
- High blood sugar
- High cholesterol and triglycerides
Overall, the symptoms that most strongly hint at Cushing syndrome are the fatty deposit on the upper back/neck, fat around the abdomen, weakness in muscles closest to the torso (such as in the shoulders and hips), wide striae (skin stripes), bruising without being bumped, unexplained osteoporosis, and—in children—slower growth in height and more weight gain that may be mistaken for obesity.2,3