According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, amenorrhea that is not caused by pregnancy, breastfeeding, or menopause occurs in a small percentage (less than 5%) of women during their lifetime.
The risk factors for amenorrhea include:2
- Excessive exercise
- Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa
- A family history of amenorrhea or early menopause
- Genetics, such as having a change to the FMR1 gene, which also causes Fragile X syndrome1
- Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (PC-ASRM). (2008). Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertility and Sterility, 90, S219–225. Retrieved May 31, 2016, from http://www.asrm.org/uploadedFiles/ASRM_Content/News_and_Publications/Practice_Guidelines/Educational_Bulletins/Current_evaluation(1).pdf (PDF - 146 KB)
- Master-Hunter, T., & Heiman, D. L. (2006). Amenorrhea: Evaluation and treatment. American Family Physician, 73, 1374–1382. Retrieved May 31, 2016, from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0415/p1374.html