We don’t know what causes uterine fibroids. Evidence suggests that multiple factors play a role in their growth.
Although exact causes are unknown, research evidence suggests that any or all of these factors might play a role in the growth of uterine fibroids:1
- Genetics (e.g., genetic mutations in the MED12, HMGA2, COL4A5/COL4A6, or FH genes)
- Estrogen and progesterone
- Growth hormones
- Micronutrients, such as iron, that the body needs only small amounts of in the blood.2 For instance, a deficiency of vitamin D may be associated with uterine fibroids.3
- Major stresses4,5
It is likely that fibroids are caused by many factors interacting with one another. Once we know the cause or causes of fibroids, our efforts to find a cure or even prevent fibroids could move ahead more quickly.