The effects of TBI range in duration and seriousness, depending on the extent of the injury and its location.1According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 45% of people who are hospitalized after a TBI have a related disability one year after the injury.2
Sometimes, a person will have medical complications as a result of TBI, and the risk of these problems increases with the severity of the injury. Some complications of TBI include seizures, nerve damage, blood clots, contraction of a blood vessel, stroke, coma, and infections in the brain.1 The risks of many of these problems decrease as more time passes from the initial TBI and as the person’s condition stabilizes.
TBI may cause problems with various brain functions. The types and extent of these problems depend on where the brain was injured.
Possible problems from TBI include:
Research suggests that having one or more TBIs may increase the risk of diseases that cause the degeneration, or break down, of brain cells. Some evidence indicates that TBI is associated with:
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