What are the stages of labor?

A text alternative is available at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/resources/links/Pages/text_alt_stages_labor.aspx.

Video en espanol: Las 3 etapas del trabajo de parto


  1. Office on Women's Health. (2017). Labor and birth. Retrieved February 21, 2017, from https://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/childbirth-and-beyond/labor-and-birth
  2. López-Zeno, L. A., & Harrington, L. (2004). Normal labor and delivery. In J. J. Sciarra (Ed.), Gynecology & obstetrics (Volume 2, Chapter 68). Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Retrieved July 22, 2013, from http://www.glowm.com/resources/glowm/cd/pages/v2/v2c068.html external link
  3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2011). FAQ: How to tell when labor begins. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/How-to-Tell-When-Labor-Begins external link
  4. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (2012). Second stage of labor: Pushing your baby out. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://www.midwife.org/ACNM/files/ccLibraryFiles/Filename/000000001793/
    external link (PDF 125 KB)
  5. Joy, S., Lyon, D., & Scott, P. L. (2015). Abnormal labor. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/273053-overview#showall external link
  6. World Health Organization. (2007). Managing complications in pregnancy and childbirth: A guide for midwives and doctors. Retrieved February 21, 2017, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43972/9241545879_eng.pdf external link (PDF 5.5 MB)
  7. Maughan, K. L., Heim, S. W., & Galazka, S. S. (2006). Preventing postpartum hemorrhage: Managing the third stage of labor. American Family Physician, 73, 1025–1028. Retrieved April 25, 2017, from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1025.pdf external link (PDF 172 KB)
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