What are the stages of labor?

A text alternative is available at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/resources/links/Pages/text_alt_stages_labor.aspx.

Video en espanol: Las 3 etapas del trabajo de parto


  1. Office on Women's Health. (2017). Labor and birth. Retrieved February 21, 2017, from https://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/childbirth-and-beyond/labor-and-birth
  2. López-Zeno, L. A., & Harrington, L. (2004). Normal labor and delivery. In J. J. Sciarra (Ed.), Gynecology & obstetrics (Volume 2, Chapter 68). Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Retrieved July 22, 2013, from http://www.glowm.com/resources/glowm/cd/pages/v2/v2c068.html
  3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2011). FAQ: How to tell when labor begins. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/How-to-Tell-When-Labor-Begins
  4. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (2012). Second stage of labor: Pushing your baby out. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://www.midwife.org/ACNM/files/ccLibraryFiles/Filename/000000001793/
     (PDF – 125 KB)
  5. Joy, S., Lyon, D., & Scott, P. L. (2015). Abnormal labor. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/273053-overview#showall
  6. World Health Organization. (2007). Managing complications in pregnancy and childbirth: A guide for midwives and doctors. Retrieved February 21, 2017, from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43972/1/9241545879_eng.pdf (PDF – 5.5 MB)
  7. Maughan, K. L., Heim, S. W., & Galazka, S. S. (2006). Preventing postpartum hemorrhage: Managing the third stage of labor. American Family Physician, 73, 1025–1028. Retrieved April 25, 2017, from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1025.pdf (PDF – 172 KB)

When does labor usually start?

What is induction of labor?

What are the stages of labor?

What are the options for pain relief during labor and delivery?

What is a cesarean delivery, or C-section?

What is vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC)?

What are some common complications during labor and delivery?

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