In many resource-poor regions, similar efforts have not been as successful. Outside of the United States, about 330,000 infants are infected with HIV during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Most of these infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa.
In addition, those who are HIV positive are at higher risk for other infections that can also pass from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. These include hepatitis B virus (HBV) and tuberculosis (TB), among others. Among women who are HIV negative, other infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), can pass from mother to child and can cause both short- and long-term health problems.
Several NICHD projects aim to understand the underlying biology of these infections as a way to prevent them from occurring and from being transmitted from mother to child. Select a link below to learn more about these efforts.
Continued Focus on Preventing MTCT of HIVFocus on Other InfectionsMore Information
For decades, NICHD-supported research has made major advances in understanding and preventing MTCT of HIV. This important work continues, with multiple efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.
In November 2012, the NICHD joined the Department of State’s Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator to award $7.5 million to researchers in seven African countries to improve efforts to prevent MTCT of HIV. The research will focus on:
Read more at U.S. Government Announces Implementation Science Awards on Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV .
The NICHD and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are also supporting a study called Promoting Maternal-Infant Survival Everywhere, or PROMISE. This study aims to find the best way to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from mothers to children during pregnancy, birth, and while breastfeeding. PROMISE researchers will give an HIV drug cocktail to infected mothers and study how well it prevents infection in infants and preserves mothers’ health. Read more at The “PROMISE” of Research.
The Institute’s research addresses other infections that are more common among women with HIV or that can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Some of these efforts include:
Ongoing research supported by the NICHD aims to reduce new pediatric infections in the United States as well as globally. Through its many projects and scientific advances, the Institute’s goal is to enhance the health of children, adolescents, and women with infections such as HIV/AIDS, TB, CMV, HBV, and HCV so that they can lead healthier lives, free of many of the consequences of these infections.
For more information on this topic, select one of the following links:
Originally Posted: February 28, 2013
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