In special cases, women may be advised not to breastfeed. These instances include when a woman is taking certain medications or drugs, when she has been diagnosed with a specific illness, or when other specific conditions apply.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2015). Breastfeeding: Diseases and conditions. Retrieved March 21, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/disease/index.htm
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Breastfeeding your baby. Retrieved June 1, 2016, from http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Breastfeeding-Your-Baby
- Tepper, D. (2015). Pregnancy and lactation—migraine management. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 55, 607–608. Retrieved January 28, 2016, from https://americanheadachesociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Pregnancy_and_Lactation_Toolbox.pdf (PDF 209 KB)
- Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Women's Mental Health. (2015). Breastfeeding & psychiatric medications. Retrieved January 29, 2016, from http://www.womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/breastfeeding-and-psychiatric-medication/
- March of Dimes. (2016). Keeping breast milk safe and healthy. Retrieved June 2, 2016, from http://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/keeping-breast-milk-safe-and-healthy.aspx
- CDC. (2009, October 23). 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) and feeding your baby: What parents should know. Retrieved April 27, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/infantfeeding.htm
- Dupont-Rouzeyrol, M., Biron, A., O'Connor, O., Huguon, E., & Descloux, E. (2016). Infectious Zika viral particles in breastmilk. Lancet, 387(10023), 1051.
- American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), e827–e841. Retrieved March 11, 2016 from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/3/e827
- World Health Organization (WHO). (2008). HIV transmission through breastfeeding: A review of the available evidence. Retrieved March 11, 2016, from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241596596_eng.pdf (PDF - 835 KB)
- WHO. (2010). Guidelines on HIV and infant feeding. Retrieved March 11, 2016, from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599535_eng.pdf (PDF - 1.58 MB)
- Coovadia, H. M., Rollins, N. C., Bland, R. M., Little, K., Coutsoudis, A., Bennish, M. L., & Newell, M.-L. (2007). Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection during exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life: An intervention cohort study. Lancet, 369(9567), 1107–1116. Retrieved March 11, 2016, from http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673607602839/fulltext
- American Diabetes Association. (2007). Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes. A position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 30(Suppl 1), S48–S65. Retrieved January 29, 2016, from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/30/suppl_1/S48.full
- BFAR. (2009). General frequently asked questions (FAQ) about breastfeeding after breast and nipple surgeries. Retrieved January 29, 2016, from http://www.bfar.org/faq.shtml
- National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2015). Substance use while pregnant and breastfeeding. Retrieved January 29, 2016, from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/substance-use-in-women/substance-use-while-pregnant-breastfeeding