Radiologic (pronounced rey-dee-uh-LOJ-ik) treatments (also called radiation therapy or radiotherapy) use ionizing (pronounced AHY-uh-nahyz-ng) radiation, similar to what you are exposed to when you get an X-ray, to treat fibroids.
Radiologic treatments might be indicated if you want a minimally invasive option that avoids surgery and typically involves a short hospital stay. Before undergoing any treatment for uterine fibroids, you should discuss your options with your health care provider.
Uterine artery embolization (pronounced YOO-te-rin AR-ter-ee em-bohl-ih-ZAY-shun), or UAE, is also called uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). This procedure cuts off the blood supply to the fibroids, causing them to shrink and be reabsorbed by your body.
In this procedure, the doctor makes a small cut in the groin area and inserts a tube (called a catheter) into the large blood vessel there. The doctor slides the tube until it reaches the arteries that supply blood to the uterus and then injects tiny particles through the tube into the arteries. The particles block blood flow to the fibroids. Blocking the blood flow eventually shrinks the fibroids and may relieve symptoms.1,2
Recovery from UAE takes less time than does recovery from a hysterectomy. Some research has shown that UAE successfully treats fibroids but that about one-third of women who have UAE need treatment again within five years.3
Because this procedure stops blood flow to parts of the uterus, it can affect how the uterus functions. It can also affect future ovarian function if the inserted particles drift into other areas of the pelvis such as the ovarian artery. Its effect on pregnancy is not clear, but an increased risk of miscarriage has been reported. For this reason, most health care providers do not recommend UAE for women who want to have children.
This treatment destroys fibroids using high-intensity ultrasound. The health care provider uses an MRI scanner to see the fibroids, then directs ultrasound waves through the skin to destroy the fibroids. This option is usually recommended for women who have only a few large fibroids.4
Scientists are still studying the long-term effects of this procedure.4 Current research shows that up to 25% of women who have MRI-guided ultrasound need a second procedure after one year.5 Because MRI-guided ultrasound is new, your health care provider may not offer it or your health insurance company may not pay for it. It may also affect ovarian function.
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