Fragile X results from a change or mutation in the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, which is found on the X chromosome. The gene normally makes a protein called Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, or FMRP. This protein is important for creating and maintaining connections between cells in the brain and nervous system. The mutation causes the body to make only a little bit or none of the protein, which often causes the symptoms of Fragile X.
Not everyone with the mutated FMR1 gene has symptoms of Fragile X syndrome, because the body may still be able to make FMRP. A few things affect how much FMRP the body can make:
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