Pediatric Gigantism and Acromegaly

Genetics of Growth Hormone Excess Site (GEGES)

Pituitary gigantism is a rare endocrine disease caused by an excessive production of growth hormone (GH) during childhood/adolescence before the closure of epiphyseal growth plates. This excess of GH, usually due to a pituitary adenoma or hyperplasia, leads to excessive somatic overgrowth. Gigantism can be associated with pituitary adenomas that occur due to mutations in genes such as aryl hydrocarbon interacting protein (AIP)multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)type 1α regulatory subunit of PKA (PRKAR1A), and GNAS. However, the genetic etiology of most gigantism cases has remained largely obscure.

Dr. Stratakis’s laboratory at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), in collaboration with Prof. Albert Beckers’s group at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège, recently undertook the most extensive genetic study of gigantism to date in the medical literature. Studying cases that were negative for mutations in known genes, the collaboration identified a new genetic defect associated with an aggressive syndrome of pituitary gigantism. This new discovery may explain the etiology of some of the tallest patients with gigantism reported in the medical literature including cases with an early disease onset1,2 . These results offer the endocrine community an unprecedented opportunity to study a new pathway involved in the central regulation of human growth.

As gigantism is a rare condition, we believe progress is best made by organized collaborative research efforts. Therefore, we would like to expand our collaboration into the genetic pathophysiology of gigantism. We warmly welcome all clinical investigators that are willing to contribute to unraveling the pathophysiology of gigantism by sending to either of our labs new patient’s samples to analyze. Both labs have the technology and expertise to screen for this new genetic defect in patients with gigantism as well as acromegaly. Contact info is reported in the appropriate section below.

Work at the NIH

Dr. Stratakis’s lab uncovered the initial cases with the novel genetic defect associated with severe pituitary gigantism. While continuously seeing and treating pediatric patients with gigantism, Dr. Stratakis’s team is studying in parallel the identified genetic defect at the molecular level. The studies performed include the fine characterization of the affected genomic locus, the perturbed molecular pathways leading to hormonal dysregulation, and the generation of animal models recapitulating this new syndrome. 

Work at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège

Universitaire (CHU) de Liège logoProf. Albert Beckers’s group at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège has a long-held interest in the genetics of pituitary adenomas, including the initial description of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). They have a long collaboration with Dr. Stratakis’s group. Prof. Beckers’ group is undertaking research on the largest cohort of gigantism cases worldwide. His group identified multiple new cases of this novel genetic syndrome, which helped define the genetic region of interest and the clinical features of the syndrome. They continually see new patients with gigantism, FIPA acromegaly and other aggressive forms of pituitary disease. Their work on this new syndrome is focusing on expanding understanding of the pathological, genetic and clinical characteristics and the role of the pathways in regulating normal and abnormal growth in humans.

Selected Publications

Stratakis Lab

  1. Zilbermint, Mihail, Mary S. Ramnitz, Maya B. Lodish, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Antonis Kattamis, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Nicholas J. Patronas, Martha M. Quezado, and Constantine A. Stratakis. "Pituitary Stalk Lesion in a 13-year-old Female." Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 27.3-4 (2014): 359-62. PDF
  2. Xekouki, P., S.A. Mastroyiannis, D. Avgeropoulos, M. De La Luz Sierra, G. Trivellin, E.A. Gourgari, C. Lyssikatos, M. Quezado, N. Patronas, C. Kanaka-Gantenbein, G.P. Chrousos, and C.A. Stratakis. "Familial Pituitary Apoplexy as the Only Presentation of a Novel AIP Mutation."Endocrine Related Cancer 20.5 (2013): L11-14. PDF
  3. Stratakis, Constantine A. "Research and Development in the Molecular Genetics of Pituitary Adenomas and Related Tumors." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 7.6 (2012): 593-98. PDF
  4. Lodish, M., S.V. Dunn, N. Sinaii, M.F. Keil, and C.A. Stratakis. "Recovery of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Children and Adolescents after Surgical Cure of Cushing's Disease."Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 97.5 (2012): 1483-491. PDF
  5. Palumbo, T., F.R. Faucz, M. Azevedo, P. Xekouki, D. Iliopoulos, and C.A. Stratakis. "Functional Screen Analysis Reveals MiR-26b and MiR-128 as Central Regulators of Pituitary Somatomammotrophic Tumor Growth through Activation of the PTEN–AKT Pathway." Oncogene32.13 (2012): 1651-659. PDF
  6. Xekouki, P., K. Pacak, M. Almeida, C.A. Wassif, P. Rustin, M. Nesterova, M. De La Luz Sierra, J. Matro, E. Ball, M. Azevedo, A. Horvath, C. Lyssikatos, M. Quezado, N. Patronas, B. Ferrando, B. Pasini, A. Lytras, G. Tolis, and C.A. Stratakis. "Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) D Subunit (SDHD) Inactivation in a Growth-Hormone-Producing Pituitary Tumor: A New Association for SDH?" Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 97.3 (2012): E357-366. PDF
  7. Xekouki, P., and C.A. Stratakis. "Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDHx) Mutations in Pituitary Tumors: Could This Be a New Role for Mitochondrial Complex II And/or Krebs Cycle Defects?" Endocrine Related Cancer 19.6 (2012): C33-40. PDF
  8. Azevedo, Monalisa F., Paraskevi Xekouki, Meg F. Keil, Eileen Lange, Nicholas Patronas, and Constantine A. Stratakis. "An Unusual Presentation of Pediatric Cushing Disease: Recurrent Corticotropinoma of the Posterior Pituitary Lobe." Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 23.6 (2010): 607-12. PDF
  9. Lodish, Maya B., and Constantine A. Stratakis. "Endocrine Tumours in Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Tuberous Sclerosis and Related Syndromes." Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 24.3 (2010): 439-49. PDF
  10. Lodish, Maya, Nicholas J. Patronas, and Constantine A. Stratakis. "Reversible Posterior Encephalopathy Syndrome Associated with Micronodular Adrenocortical Disease and Cushing Syndrome." European Journal of Pediatrics 169.1 (2010): 125-26. PDF
  11. Stratakis, C.A., M.A. Tichomirowa, S. Boikos, M.F. Azevedo, M. Lodish, M. Martari, S. Verma, A.F. Daly, M. Raygada, M.F. Keil, J. Papademetriou, L. Drori-Herishanu, A. Horvath, K.M. Tsang, M. Nesterova, S. Franklin, J-F. Vanbellinghen, V. Bours, R. Salvatori, and A. Beckers. "The Role of Germline AIP, MEN1, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and CDKN2C Mutations in Causing Pituitary Adenomas in a Large Cohort of Children, Adolescents, and Patients with Genetic Syndromes."Clinical Genetics 78.5 (2010): 457-63. PDF
  12. Xekouki, Paraskevi, Monalisa Azevedo, and Constantine A. Stratakis. "Anterior Pituitary Adenomas: Inherited Syndromes, Novel Genes and Molecular Pathways." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 5.5 (2010): 697-709. PDF
  13. Batista, D.L., E.H. Oldfield, M.F. Keil, and C.A. Stratakis. "Postoperative Testing to Predict Recurrent Cushing Disease in Children." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 94.8 (2009): 2757-765. PDF
  14. Lodish, M.B., N. Sinaii, N. Patronas, D.L. Batista, M. Keil, J. Samuel, J. Moran, S. Verma, J. Popovic, and C.A. Stratakis. "Blood Pressure in Pediatric Patients with Cushing Syndrome."Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 94.6 (2009): 2002-008. PDF
  15. Keil, Margaret F., and Constantine A. Stratakis. "Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment and Molecular Genetics of Pituitary Adenomas in Childhood." European Endocrinology 4.2 (2008): 81-5. PDF
  16. Keil, Margaret F., and Constantine A. Stratakis. "Pituitary Tumors in Childhood: Update of Diagnosis, Treatment and Molecular Genetics." Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics (2008): 563-74. PDF
  17. Nandagopal, Radha, Alexander Vortmeyer, Edward H. Oldfield, Margaret F. Keil, and Constantine A. Stratakis. "Cushing's Syndrome Due to a Pituitary Corticotropinoma in a Child with Tuberous Sclerosis: An Association or a Coincidence?" Clinical Endocrinology 67.4 (2007): 639-41. PDF
  18. Batista, Dalia, Monia Gennari, Jehan Riar, Richard Chang, Margaret F. Keil, Edward H. Oldfield, and Constantine A. Stratakis. "An Assessment of Petrosal Sinus Sampling for Localization of Pituitary Microadenomas in Children with Cushing Disease." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 91.1 (2006): 221-24. PDF
  19. Batista, D.L., X. Zhang, R. Gejman, P.J. Ansell, Y. Zhou, S.A. Johnson, B. Swearingen, E.T. Hedley-Whyte, C.A. Stratakis, and A. Klibanski. "The Effects of SOM230 on Cell Proliferation and Adrenocorticotropin Secretion in Human Corticotroph Pituitary Adenomas." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 91.11 (2006): 4482-488. PDF
  20. Batista, Dalia, Nickolas A. Courkoutsakis, Edward H. Oldfield, Kurt J. Griffin, Meg Keil, Nickolas J. Patronas, and Constantine A. Stratakis. "Detection of Adrenocorticotropin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children and Adolescents with Cushing Disease."Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 90.9 (2005): 5134-140. PDF
  21. Pack, Svetlana D., Liu-Xiu Qin, Evgenia Pak, Yun Wang, David O. Ault, Poonam Mannan, Sivakumar Jaikumar, Constantine A. Stratakis, Edward H. Oldfield, Zhengping Zhuang, and Robert J. Weil. "Common Genetic Changes in Hereditary and Sporadic Pituitary Adenomas Detected by Comparative Genomic Hybridization." Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer 43.1 (2005): 72-82. PDF
  22. Bossis, I., A. Voutetakis, L. Matyakhina, S. Pack, M. Abu-Asab, I. Bourdeau, K.J. Griffin, N. Courcoutsakis, S. Stergiopoulos, D. Batista, M. Tsokos, and C.A. Stratakis. "A Pleiomorphic GH Pituitary Adenoma from a Carney Complex Patient Displays Universal Allelic Loss at the Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit 1A (PRKARIA) Locus." Journal of Medical Genetics 41.8 (2004): 596-600. PDF
  23. Pack, Svetlana D., Lawrence S. Kirschner, Evgenia Pak, Zhengping Zhuang, J. Aidan Carney, and Constantine A. Stratakis. "Genetic and Histologic Studies of Somatomammotropic Pituitary Tumors in Patients with the “Complex of Spotty Skin Pigmentation, Myxomas, Endocrine Overactivity and Schwannomas” (Carney Complex)." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 85.10 (2000): 3860-865. PDF

Beckers Group

  1. A clinically novel AIP mutation in a patient with a very large, apparently sporadic somatotrope adenoma. Salvatori R, Daly AF, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Thiry A, Beckers A. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2014;2014:140048. doi: 10.1530/EDM-14-0048. Epub 2014 Aug 1.
  2. McCune-Albright syndrome: a detailed pathological and genetic analysis of disease effects in an adult patient. Vasilev V, Daly AF, Thiry A, Petrossians P, Fina F, Rostomyan L, Silvy M, Enjalbert A, Barlier A, Beckers A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):E2029-38. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1291. Epub 2014 Jul 25.
  3. Somatostatin analogues increase AIP expression in somatotropinomas, irrespective of Gsp mutations. Jaffrain-Rea ML, Rotondi S, Turchi A, Occhi G, Barlier A, Peverelli E, Rostomyan L, Defilles C, Angelini M, Oliva MA, Ceccato F, Maiorani O, Daly AF, Esposito V, Buttarelli F, Figarella-Branger D, Giangaspero F, Spada A, Scaroni C, Alesse E, Beckers A. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013 Sep 16;20(5):753-66. doi: 10.1530/ERC-12-0322. Print 2013 Oct.
  4. Means, motive, and opportunity: SDH mutations are suspects in pituitary tumors. Beckers A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jun;98(6):2274-6. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2125. No abstract available.
  5. Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the pituitary adenoma predisposition due to mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene. Beckers A, Aaltonen LA, Daly AF, Karhu A. Endocr Rev. 2013 Apr;34(2):239-77. doi: 10.1210/er.2012-1013. Epub 2013 Jan 31. Review.
  6. Genetic analysis in young patients with sporadic pituitary macroadenomas: besides AIP don't forget MEN1 genetic analysis. Cuny T, Pertuit M, Sahnoun-Fathallah M, Daly A, Occhi G, Odou MF, Tabarin A, Nunes ML, Delemer B, Rohmer V, Desailloud R, Kerlan V, Chabre O, Sadoul JL, Cogne M, Caron P, Cortet-Rudelli C, Lienhardt A, Raingeard I, Guedj AM, Brue T, Beckers A, Weryha G, Enjalbert A, Barlier A. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Mar 15;168(4):533-41. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0763. Print 2013 Apr.
  7. Prolactinomas resistant to standard doses of cabergoline: a multicenter study of 92 patients.Vroonen L, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Petrossians P, Tamagno G, Chanson P, Vilar L, Borson-Chazot F, Naves LA, Brue T, Gatta B, Delemer B, Ciccarelli E, Beck-Peccoz P, Caron P, Daly AF, Beckers A. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Nov;167(5):651-62. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0236. Epub 2012 Aug 23.
  8. The Liege Acromegaly Survey (LAS): a new software tool for the study of acromegaly. Petrossians P, Tichomirowa MA, Stevenaert A, Martin D, Daly AF, Beckers A. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2012 Jun;73(3):190-201. doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2012.05.001. Epub 2012 Jun 9.
  9. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) gene variants in AIP mutation-negative familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds. Tichomirowa MA, Lee M, Barlier A, Daly AF, Marinoni I, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Naves LA, Rodien P, Rohmer V, Faucz FR, Caron P, Estour B, Lecomte P, Borson-Chazot F, Penfornis A, Yaneva M, Guitelman M, Castermans E, Verhaege C, Wémeau JL, Tabarin A, Fajardo Montañana C, Delemer B, Kerlan V, Sadoul JL, Cortet Rudelli C, Archambeaud F, Zacharieva S, Theodoropoulou M, Brue T, Enjalbert A, Bours V, Pellegata NS, Beckers A.Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012 May 3;19(3):233-41. doi: 10.1530/ERC-11-0362. Print 2012 Jun.
  10. High prevalence of AIP gene mutations following focused screening in young patients with sporadic pituitary macroadenomas. Tichomirowa MA, Barlier A, Daly AF, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Ronchi C, Yaneva M, Urban JD, Petrossians P, Elenkova A, Tabarin A, Desailloud R, Maiter D, Schürmeyer T, Cozzi R, Theodoropoulou M, Sievers C, Bernabeu I, Naves LA, Chabre O, Montañana CF, Hana V, Halaby G, Delemer B, Aizpún JI, Sonnet E, Longás AF, Hagelstein MT, Caron P, Stalla GK, Bours V, Zacharieva S, Spada A, Brue T, Beckers A. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Oct;165(4):509-15. doi: 10.1530/EJE-11-0304. Epub 2011 Jul 13.
  11. Pituitary incidentaloma: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. Freda PU, Beckers AM, Katznelson L, Molitch ME, Montori VM, Post KD, Vance ML; Endocrine Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Apr;96(4):894-904. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1048.
  12. Hyperplasia-adenoma sequence in pituitary tumorigenesis related to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutation. Villa C, Lagonigro MS, Magri F, Koziak M, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Brauner R, Bouligand J, Junier MP, Di Rocco F, Sainte-Rose C, Beckers A, Roux FX, Daly AF, Chiovato L. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011 Jun 8;18(3):347-56. doi: 10.1530/ERC-11-0059. Print 2011 Jun.
  13. Aggressive prolactinoma in a child related to germline mutation in the ARYL hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene. Naves LA, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Vêncio SA, Jacomini CZ, Casulari LA, Daly AF, Beckers A. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2010 Nov;54(8):761-7.
  14. Clinical characteristics and therapeutic responses in patients with germ-line AIP mutations and pituitary adenomas: an international collaborative study. Daly AF, Tichomirowa MA, Petrossians P, Heliövaara E, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Barlier A, Naves LA, Ebeling T, Karhu A, Raappana A, Cazabat L, De Menis E, Montañana CF, Raverot G, Weil RJ, Sane T, Maiter D, Neggers S, Yaneva M, Tabarin A, Verrua E, Eloranta E, Murat A, Vierimaa O, Salmela PI, Emy P, Toledo RA, Sabaté MI, Villa C, Popelier M, Salvatori R, Jennings J, Longás AF, Labarta Aizpún JI, Georgitsi M, Paschke R, Ronchi C, Valimaki M, Saloranta C, De Herder W, Cozzi R, Guitelman M, Magri F, Lagonigro MS, Halaby G, Corman V, Hagelstein MT, Vanbellinghen JF, Barra GB, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Cameron FJ, Borson-Chazot F, Holdaway I, Toledo SP, Stalla GK, Spada A, Zacharieva S, Bertherat J, Brue T, Bours V, Chanson P, Aaltonen LA, Beckers A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Nov;95(11):E373-83. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-2556. Epub 2010 Aug 4.
  15. Aggressive pituitary adenomas occurring in young patients in a large Polynesian kindred with a germline R271W mutation in the AIP gene. Jennings JE, Georgitsi M, Holdaway I, Daly AF, Tichomirowa M, Beckers A, Aaltonen LA, Karhu A, Cameron FJ. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Nov;161(5):799-804. doi: 10.1530/EJE-09-0406. Epub 2009 Aug 14.
  16. Tumor ZAC1 expression is associated with the response to somatostatin analog therapy in patients with acromegaly. Theodoropoulou M, Tichomirowa MA, Sievers C, Yassouridis A, Arzberger T, Hougrand O, Deprez M, Daly AF, Petrossians P, Pagotto U, Beckers A, Stalla GK.Int J Cancer. 2009 Nov 1;125(9):2122-6. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24602.
  17. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR-interacting protein in pituitary adenomas: pathological and clinical implications. Jaffrain-Rea ML, Angelini M, Gargano D, Tichomirowa MA, Daly AF, Vanbellinghen JF, D'Innocenzo E, Barlier A, Giangaspero F, Esposito V, Ventura L, Arcella A, Theodoropoulou M, Naves LA, Fajardo C, Zacharieva S, Rohmer V, Brue T, Gulino A, Cantore G, Alesse E, Beckers A. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 Sep;16(3):1029-43. doi: 10.1677/ERC-09-0094. Epub 2009 Jun 25.
  18. Variable pathological and clinical features of a large Brazilian family harboring a mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene. Naves LA, Daly AF, Vanbellinghen JF, Casulari LA, Spilioti C, Magalhães AV, Azevedo MF, Giacomini LA, Nascimento PP, Nunes RO, Rosa JW, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Bours V, Beckers A. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Oct;157(4):383-91.
  19. The clinical, pathological, and genetic features of familial isolated pituitary adenomas. Beckers A, Daly AF. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Oct;157(4):371-82. Review.
  20. Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene are not highly prevalent among subjects with sporadic pituitary adenomas. Barlier A, Vanbellinghen JF, Daly AF, Silvy M, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Trouillas J, Tamagno G, Cazabat L, Bours V, Brue T, Enjalbert A, Beckers A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 May;92(5):1952-5. Epub 2007 Feb 13.
  21. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene mutations in familial isolated pituitary adenomas: analysis in 73 families. Daly AF, Vanbellinghen JF, Khoo SK, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Naves LA, Guitelman MA, Murat A, Emy P, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Tamburrano G, Raverot G, Barlier A, De Herder W, Penfornis A, Ciccarelli E, Estour B, Lecomte P, Gatta B, Chabre O, Sabaté MI, Bertagna X, Garcia Basavilbaso N, Stalldecker G, Colao A, Ferolla P, Wémeau JL, Caron P, Sadoul JL, Oneto A, Archambeaud F, Calender A, Sinilnikova O, Montañana CF, Cavagnini F, Hana V, Solano A, Delettieres D, Luccio-Camelo DC, Basso A, Rohmer V, Brue T, Bours V, Teh BT, Beckers A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 May;92(5):1891-6. Epub 2007 Jan 23.
  22. High prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a cross-sectional study in the province of Liege, Belgium.Daly AF, Rixhon M, Adam C, Dempegioti A, Tichomirowa MA, Beckers A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;91(12):4769-75. Epub 2006 Sep 12.
  23. Clinical characterization of familial isolated pituitary adenomas. Daly AF, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Ciccarelli A, Valdes-Socin H, Rohmer V, Tamburrano G, Borson-Chazot C, Estour B, Ciccarelli E, Brue T, Ferolla P, Emy P, Colao A, De Menis E, Lecomte P, Penfornis F, Delemer B, Bertherat J, Wémeau JL, De Herder W, Archambeaud F, Stevenaert A, Calender A, Murat A, Cavagnini F,Beckers A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep;91(9):3316-23. Epub 2006 Jun 20.
  24. Gross total resection or debulking of pituitary adenomas improves hormonal control of acromegaly by somatostatin analogs. Petrossians P, Borges-Martins L, Espinoza C, Daly A, Betea D, Valdes-Socin H, Stevenaert A, Chanson P, Beckers A. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Jan;152(1):61-6.
  25. Gigantism: a mystery explained. Beckers A. Bull Mem Acad R Med Belg. 2002;157(1-2):111-7; discussion 117-9. French.

Contact Info

Dr. Constantine A. Stratakis lab:
10 Center Drive, CRC, Rm 1E-3216
Bethesda, MD 20892-1862 USA
Phone: 301-402-1998; 301-451-8034

Prof. Albert Beckers lab:
Department of Endocrinology CHU Sart Tilman B35
Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman
University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
Phone: 0032 4 3667083

Historical Giants

Click images to enlarge.

Robert Pershing Wadlow.
Robert Pershing Wadlow, the tallest recorded man in history (2 meters 72 cm; 8 feet 11.1 inches)1
Cornelius Magrath.
Irish Giant, Cornelius Magrath (Pietro Longhi, 1757)
The Hugo brothers, Antoine and Baptiste.
Robert Pershing Wadlow, the tallest recorded man in history (2 meters 72 cm; 8 feet 11.1 inches)1
Fermín Arrudi Urieta.
Irish Giant, Cornelius Magrath (Pietro Longhi, 1757)
American actor Matthew McGrory.
American actor Matthew McGrory  (1973-2005), best known for his role in the film Big Fish.
Image from Matthew McGrory Wikipedia article 

The following images were kindly donated and copied from the private collection of Dr. Alan Guttmacher.

Patrick O'Brien, the Irish Giant.
Historical image of Patrick O'Brien, the Irish Giant.
Patrick O'Brien, the Irish Giant.
Historical image of Patrick O'Brien, the Irish Giant.
Francis Battalia.
Historical etching of "Roman youth" Francis Battalia, the stone eater.
Mrs. Everitt and her "gigantic infant.".
Historical etching of Mrs. Everitt and her "gigantic infant."


  1. Behrens LH, Barr DP. Hyperpituitarism beginning in infancy: the Alton giant. Endocrinology 1930;16:120-8.
  2. de Herder WW. Acromegaly and gigantism in the medical literature. Case descriptions in the era before and the early years after the initial publication of Pierre Marie (1886). Pituitary 2009;12:236-44.
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