NICHD’s research on Turner syndrome aims to better understand both the physical and psychosocial effects of the syndrome. Turner syndrome is relatively common, occurring in more female live births than cystic fibrosis. However, much is still not understood about the lifelong effects of Turner syndrome. Heart disease, short stature, and social aspects of sexual development are all areas in which NICHD researchers are active. Other research aims to understand the syndrome’s effects on cardiac function and insulin resistance as well as the long-term effects of therapies such as estrogen and growth hormone.