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- Branch-supported research:
Branch-supported clinical-trial network:
- Jaeggi T, Kortman GA, Moretti D, Chassard C, Holding P, Dostal A, Boekhorst J, Timmerman HM, Swinkels DW, Tjalsma H, Njenga J, Mwangi A, Kvalsvig J, Lacroix C, Zimmermann MB. Iron fortification adversely affects the gut microbiome, increases pathogen abundance and induces intestinal inflammation in Kenyan infants. Gut. 2014 Aug 20. pii: gutjnl-2014-307720. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307720. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 25143342
- Marzelli MJ, Mazaika PK, Barnea-Goraly N, Hershey T, Tsalikian E, Tamborlane W, Mauras N, Reiss AL, for the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet). Neuroanatomical correlates of dysglycemia in young children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 63:343-53, 2014. PMID: 24170697
- Barnea-Goraly N, Raman M, Mazaika P, Marzelli M, Hershey T, Weinzimer SA, Aye T, Buckingham B, Mauras N, White NH, Fox LA, Tansey M, Beck RW, Ruedy KJ, Kollman C, Cheng P, Reiss AL; Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet). Alterations in white matter structure in young children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 37:332-340, 2014. PMID: 24319123
- Cato MA, Mauras N, Ambrosino J, Bondurant A, Conrad AL, Kollman C, Cheng P, Beck RW, Ruedy KJ, Aye T, Reiss A, White NH, Hershey T; Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet). Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 20:238-247, 2014. PMID: 24512675
- Shukla P et al [Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014 DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00595.2013] found that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy altered vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries through loss of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation was completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. PMID: 24816259
- Morrow AL, Lagomarcino AJ, Schibler KR, Taft DH, Yu Z, Wang B, Altaye M, Wagner M, Gevers D, Ward DV, Kennedy MA, Huttenhower C, Newburg D. 2013. Early microbial and metabolomics signatures predict later onset of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Microbiome 1: 1-10 (PDF - 1.2 MB).
- Mai et al [PLoS One 2011: 6; e20647] reported significant changes in intestinal bacterial populations one week before the onset of Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC), with a bloom of Proteobacteria and a simultaneous decrease in Firmicutes. One of the bacterial rRNA signatures detected more frequently in NEC cases than in controls was an unknown bacterium in the Enterobacteriaceae family. These novel findings will help predict NEC before it strikes. PMID:21674011.
- Hayes et al [Diabetes 2013; epub ahead of print] identified two novel associations between genes and measures of maternal metabolism taken during an oral glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks' gestation. The genome-wide association study also identified associations with genes that had previously been implicated with measures of glucose metabolism in nonpregnant populations. These results from an ancillary study of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study suggest that the genetic architecture underlying glucose metabolism may be somewhat different in pregnancy. PMID: 23903356.
- Dallas et al [J Proteome Res 2013; 12: 2295-304] identified over 300 milk peptides in human milk, with the majority derived from β-casein. Many showed significant sequence overlap with peptides known to have antimicrobial or immunomodulatory functions; in fact, the milk peptide mixtures inhibited bacterial growth in assays. The release of antibacterial peptides from the predigestion of milk proteins in the mammary gland may protect both the mammary gland and the offspring from infection. PMID: 23586814
- La Merrill et al [Environ Health Perspect 2013; 121: 594-9] showed an association between prenatal exposure to DDT and hypertension between ages 39 and 47, independent of other hypertension risk factors. This suggests early-life origins for the development of hypertension risk. PMID: 23591545
- Bradfield et al (led by Grant, for the Early Growth Genetics Consortium) [Nat Genet 2012; 44: 526-31], in a meta-analysis of 14 studies of 5,530 cases, identified two loci with genome-wide significant association for early-onset obesity. These two loci continued to be associated after two extreme childhood obesity cohorts were included. These results are consistent with data on adult BMI. PMID: 22484627
- Horikoshi et al (including Grant, for the Early Growth Genetics Consortium) [Nat Genet 2013; 45: 76-82] discovered 6 new loci with genome-wide significant association between birth weight and type 2 diabetes. (Previously, only 1 was known.) These loci account for a similar amount of variance in adult type 2 diabetes as maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other growth or metabolic phenotypes. These findings highlight the genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism. PMID: 23202124
- Morrow et al [J Pediatr 2011; 158: 745-51] noted that the fucosyltrasferase 2 gene (FUT2) codes for fucosyl-lactose, known as the H antigen, which protects against enteric bacterial pathogens. However, 25% of the population have a non-coding FUT2 polymorphism and, therefore, have no H antigen-conferred protection. These investigators reported that premature infants without the H antigen have a mortality rate 7 times greater than infants with the H antigen. This finding can be incorporated into algorithms that predict likelihood of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in preterm infants. PMID:21256510.
TrialNet investigators, partially supported by the NICHD, reported that the immunomodulatory agent abatacept, when administered to children with new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus, prevents T-cell activation and preserves beta cell function. Two years after treatment, insulin production was 59% greater in those children receiving abatacept than in those assigned to placebo. PMID:21719096