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  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice Bulletin: Clinical management guidelines for obstetricians-gynecologists. Number 30, September 2001. Obstetrics and Gynecology 98(3):525-38, 2001.
  2. American Diabetes Association: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Position Statement). Diabetes Care 26 (Suppl 1): S103-S105, 2003.
  3. Metzger BE, Coustan DR (Eds.): Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop- Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 21(Suppl. 2): B1-B167, 1998.
  4. Adapted from Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Fifth Edition). U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S.Department of Health and Human Services. Government Printing Office; Washington, DC: 2000.
  5. American Diabetes Association: Evidence-Based Nutrition Principles and Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes and Related Complications (Position Statement). Diabetes Care 26(Suppl. 1): S51-S61, 2003.
  6. Jovanovic-Peterson L, and Peterson C: Is Exercise Safe or Useful for Gestational Diabetes Women? Diabetes 40 (Suppl. 2): 179-181, 1991.
  7. Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period. ACOG Technical Bulletin No. 189:1-4, 1994.
  8. Brown JE: Nutrition and Pregnancy: A Complete Guide from Preconception to Postdelivery. Los Angeles, CA: NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group, 1998.
  9. Gabbe SG, Neibyl JR, and Simpson JL (Eds.): Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies (Third Edition). New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 1996.
  10. Nutrition During Pregnancy. ACOG Patient Education Publication AP001. Washington,  DC: ACOG, 1995.
  11. Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High  Blood Pressure: The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention,  Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The Archives of  Internal Medicine 157: 2413-2446, 1997.
  12. Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus: Report of  the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus.  Diabetes Care 26 (Suppl. 1): S5-S20, 2003.
  13. MacNeill S, Dodds L, Hamilton DC, Armson BA,VandenHof M: Rates and Risk Factors  for Recurrence of Gestational Diabetes. Diabetes Care 24:659-662, 2001.
  14. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2002. USDA National  Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 15.Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-45-00.

The NICHD would like to acknowledge Steve Gabbe, M.D., for his contributions to this booklet. The image on page 6 was provided by Tina Williams Photography.

Portions of this booklet are based on a manuscript by Deborah Thomas-Dobersen, R.D., M.S.

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Last Updated Date: 09/11/2006
Last Reviewed Date: 09/11/2006
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