Basic information for topics, such as "What is it?" and "How many people are affected?" is available in the Condition Information section. In addition, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) that are specific to a certain topic are answered in this section.
Pituitary tumors can cause a variety of complications.
If a tumor grows large enough, it can press on and damage the optic nerves, impair vision, or even cause blindness. Large tumors also can press on the brain or the vessels that bring blood to the brain.1
Occasionally, surgery to remove a tumor will stop the pituitary gland from producing a particular hormone. In this case, the patient will have to take a hormone medication to replace the hormone that is no longer being produced.1
It is possible for tumors that have been removed to return. Therefore, patients should continue to have a health care provider monitor their condition after they get treatment.
Several conditions are associated with pituitary tumors1:
Pituitary tumors usually do not spread to other parts of the body. They normally grow very slowly. In very rare cases, pituitary tumors are malignant. These malignant tumors, called pituitary carcinomas, can spread to other areas of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) or outside of the central nervous system.1
Pituitary tumors in children are almost never malignant.7
Some types of tumors may make it difficult for women to become pregnant. A type of pituitary tumor called a prolactinoma (pronounced proh-lak-tuh-NOH-muh) is the most common type of pituitary tumor. Prolactinomas are five times as common in women as in men and can cause irregular periods and infertility. However, a doctor can prescribe medications that correct the high levels of prolactin (pronounced proh-LAK-tin) secreted by prolactinomas.8 These medications can restore regular periods, and thus fertility, in 90% of patients.9
Irregular periods or infertility can also be caused by nonfunctioning tumors, but unlike prolactinomas, nonfunctioning tumors do not secrete hormones. Instead, their size or position can damage the pituitary gland and prevent it from secreting enough of certain hormones.10 Too little secretion is called hyposecretion (pronounced hahy-poh-si-KREE-shuhn). Hyposecretion can lead to decreases in the sex steroids required for pregnancy.9 Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors are the second most common pituitary tumor, representing 25% of cases.11
Talk to your doctor about treatment options if you have a pituitary tumor and want to get pregnant.
Depending on their type and size, pituitary tumors sometimes cause pregnancy complications. Occasionally, pregnancy can cause tumors to grow larger, making symptoms more likely. Certain tumor types can increase the risk of diabetes and high blood pressure.
Doctors usually recommend that women stop taking medications for tumors when they become pregnant. However, if symptoms from pituitary tumors occur, it is possible to take certain medications during pregnancy. Most medications do not appear to harm the fetus.
If you have pituitary tumors and plan to become pregnant, talk to your doctor about your options.12
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