The most common cause1 of hypoparathyroidism is injury to the parathyroid glands, such as during head and neck surgery. For example, thyroid surgery may lead to damage of the parathyroid glands or may damage the surrounding tissues.
It other cases, hypoparathyroidism is present at birth (called congenital), or it may be associated with an autoimmune disease that affects the parathyroid glands along with other glands such as the thyroid, ovaries, pancreas, or adrenal glands.
When hypoparathyroidism is present along with multiple other low hormone levels, it may be part of a rare congenital syndrome called autoimmune polyglandular failure type 1.
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