The workshop, cosponsored by the NICHD, National Institute of Drug Abuse, and the Office of Research on Women's Health, was held on March 23 and 24, 2004. Prenatal substance abuse continues to be a major public health problem. Its impact on children has been explored in several longitudinal studies. Developmental processes in normal and at-risk children could assist in understanding and intervening to aid children exposed to in utero cocaine and other types of maternal lifestyle characteristics, including alcohol use, smoking, poverty, and home environment. Subtle and significant effects of maternal cocaine use have been reported in the literature. The goal of this planning workshop was to review the state-of-the-art of longitudinal studies in the field of prenatal substance exposure, and to establish a scientific agenda for future observational and interventional studies. The ultimate goal of this effort is to establish appropriate treatment and policies for consequences of prenatal substance exposure and risky environments to benefit vulnerable children. More details are available at http://archives.drugabuse.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol19N3/Conference.html.